- February 14 - Pope Benedict VIII recognizes Henry of Bavaria as King of Germany
- July 29 - Battle of Kleidion: Basil II inflicts not only a decisive defeat on the Bulgarian army, but his subsequent savage treatment of 15,000 prisoners reportedly causes Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria to die of shock.
- Henry II of Germany crowned Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Benedict VIII (ruled since 1003)
- Following the death of Sweyn I, Ethelred II returns to England and retakes the English crown. Canute the Great returns to Denmark
- Battle of Clontarf; forces under Brian Boru defeat several allied Viking forces in Ireland, ending their power there but killing Brian in the process
- Colditz castle is built
- In England archbishop Wulfstan preaches his Latin homily, "Wulf's Address to the English"
- Avicenna arrives at the court of Amir Majd al-Dawla at Jabal
- in Kashmir, Abhinavagupta, the teacher of the poet Ksemendra, circulates his Greater commentary on the Pratyabhijna Darshana.
- February 3 - Sweyn I Haraldsson Forkbeard, king of Denmark. who had seized the throne of England for five weeks.
- April 23 - Brian Boru, high king of Ireland during the Battle of Clontarf fought outside Dublin against the rebel Maelmordha of Leinster, who was aided by the Viking Sigtrygg of Dublin.
- October 6 - Samuil of Bulgaria, Tsar of Bulgaria
- Viking earl in the Orkneys, Sigurd the Stout, dies.
- Sri RajaRaja I, the great temple builder of the Chola dynasty, dies at Thanjavur, in the Deccan.