Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion.
- January 23 - The Royal Exchange opens in London.
- Crimean Tartars from the Ottoman Empire seize and burn Moscow, capitol of Russia.
- October 7 Battle of Lepanto - Spanish, Venetian, and Papal naval forces under Don John of Austria defeat the Turkish fleet of Ali Monizindade Pasha.
- Michael Praetorius, german composer between the music styles renaissance und baroque (perhaps born in 1572)
- Gabrielle d'Estrée, mistress of French king, Henri IV
- December 27 - Johannes Kepler, German astronomer
- Abati, italian artist