Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31.
- The Treaty of Zsitva-Torok ends the Long War between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans in Hungary. The independence of Transylvania is recognized by both sides and Austria's annual tribute to the Ottoman Empire is abolished.
- First Union Flag created.
- The Jesuit Joannis Stribingius visits Latvia, describes Latvian mythology