Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- English explorer Henry Hudson discovers the Hudson River, as he was trying to find a way across the North Pole.
- May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia.
- July 6 - Bohemia is granted freedom of religion.
- August 28 - Henry Hudson is the first European to see Delaware Bay.
- October 12 - "Three Blind Mice" published by London teenage songwriter Thomas Ravenscroft.
- Samuel de Champlain claims the Lake Champlain area of Vermont for France.
- Galileo Galilei is the first to perform observational astronomy with a telescope.
- The first published rounds in English are published by Thomas Ravenscroft.
- Johannes Kepler publishes his first two laws of planetary motion.
- Claudio Monteverdi publishes his first opera, Orfeo.
- The Rheims bible is published in England.
- Bermuda is first settled, by English shipwreck victims en route to Virginia.
- Start of the Twelve Years' Truce in the Eighty Years' War
- March 28 - King Frederick III of Denmark
- November 25 - Henrietta Maria, Princess of France and Navarra, later Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland.