Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War.
- September 3 - In the English Parliament, the republican party question Cromwell's pre-eminence
- September 12 - Oliver Cromwell orders the excusion of the members of Parliament who are hostile to him
- October 12 - Carel Fabritius, the most promising student of Rembrandt, dies aged 32 in an explosion at the arsenal at Delft
- Twenty-three Jewish refugees from Brazil settle in New Amsterdam, forming the nucleus of what would be the largest urban Jewish community in history, the Jewish community of New York City.
- The Ukrainian Bogdan Chmielnicki renounces Ukrainian independence and swears allegiance to Tsar Alexis of Russia
- The Russian Army seizes Smolensk, and war starts between Russia and Poland over the Ukraine
- Otto von Guericke proves the existence of atmospheric pressure
- Queen Christina of Sweden adbicates after selling large amounts of crown property to support the 500 nobles she created.. she leaves dressed in men's clothers under the name Count Dohna and settles in Rome
- Queen Christina's cousin Charles X of Sweden becomes King