Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century
- Astronomical aberration discovered by the astronomer James Bradley
- Swedish academy of sciences founded at Uppsala
- February 21 - Emperor Peter III of Russia, husband of Catherine the Great (+ 1762)
- August 28 - John Stark, American Revolutionary War general
- September 14 - Mercy Otis Warren, American playwright
- October 27 - James Cook (+1779), British naval captain and explorer.