Decades: 1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s - 1800s - 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s
Years: 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 - 1809 - 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814
First running of the Two Thousand Guineas Stakes horse race in England.
January 16 - Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of Corunna.
February 3 - Illinois Territory was created.
February 11 - Robert Fulton patents the steamboat.
February 20 - A decision by the Supreme Court of the United States states that the power of the federal government is greater than any individual state.
March 4 - James Madison succeeds Thomas Jefferson as the President of the United States
May - Napoleon captures Vienna, is excommunicated, imprisons pope Pius VII
May 5 - Mary Kies is the first woman to be awarded a patent
May 5 - The Swiss canton of Aargau denies Jews citizenship.
May 17 - Napoleon I of France orders the annexation of the Papal States to the French empire.
June 6 - A New Constitution for Sweden, again a Constitutional Monarchy after an unbloody revolution March 22: Charles XIII succeeds Gustav IV Adolf.
June 7 - Shah Shuja of Afghanistan signs a treaty with the British. Only weeks later, he is succeeded by Mahmud Shah
September 17 - Peace between Russia and Sweden in the Finnish War. The territory to become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
October 11 - Along the Natchez Trace in Tennessee, explorer Meriwether Lewis dies under mysterious circumstances at an inn called Grinder's Stand.
USS Constitution (Old Ironsides) is recommissioned as flagship of the North Atlantic Squadron.
Louis Poinsot describes the two remaining Kepler solids.
Lamarck publishes Philosophie Zoologique, outlining the concept of evolution.
Year in topics
1809 in art
January 4 - Louis Braille, teacher, developed writing system for the blind (+ 1852).
January 19 - Edgar Allan Poe, US writer
February 3 - Felix Mendelssohn Bartoldy, composer (+ 1847)
February 12 - Abraham Lincoln, US president
February 12 - Charles Darwin, British naturalist
March 31 - Nikolai Gogol, writer
June 8 - Richard Wigginton Thompson, congressman
August 6 - Alfred Lord Tennyson, British poet
August 8 - Heinrich Abeken, German theologian
August 27 - Hannibal Hamlin, US politician
December 24 - Christopher Houston, American frontiersman
William Ewart Gladstone, British liberal politician
Hermann Gunter Grassmann, Prussian mathematician
June 8 - Thomas Paine, writer of Common Sense
August 18 - Matthew Boulton, pioneering industrialist and member of the Lunar Society
Nikolaj Abraham Abildgaard, Danish painter
Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer
Heads of states
Denmark - Frederick VI King of Denmark (1808-1839), and King of Norway (1808-1814)
France - Napoléon I Emperor of France (1804-1814)
Ottoman Empire - Mahmud II Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1808-1839)
Prussia - Frederick William III King of Prussia (1797-1840)
Spain - Joseph Bonaparte King of Spain (1808-1813)
Russia - Alexander I Tsar of Russia (1801-1825)
United States - Thomas Jefferson third President of the United States (1801-1809)