Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC
- Second Punic War:
- In the First Battle of Capua, Hannibal defeats the consuls Q. Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius, but the Roman army escapes.
- Hannibal destroys the army of the Roman praetor M. Centenius Penula in the Battle of the Silarus, then destroys the Roman army of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius in the Battle of Herdonia.
- The Romans take Syracuse.
- In Rome, Publius Licinius Crassus is elected pontifex maximus over more distinguished candidates, despite never having held any major offices.
- Archimedes, scientist