Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC
- Athens capitulates to Sparta. End of the Peloponnesian War.
- Amyrtaeus declares himself king of Egypt, revolting against his Persian overlords. This is considered the end of the Twenty-seventh Dynasty and start of Twenty-eighth Dynasty.
- Artaxerxes II succeeds his father Darius II as emperor of Persia.