Abingdon is a market town in Oxfordshire, England, but was the county town of Berkshire prior to 1974. It lies 6 miles south of Oxford in the flat valley of the Thames, on the west (right) bank, where the small river Ock flows in from the Vale of White Horse. Abingdon used to be the terminus of a branch of the railway from Radley, but the station closed in 1963; these days Abingdon is well connected to Oxford by local bus services.
The church of St Helens stands near the river, and its fine Early English tower with Perpendicular spire is the principal object in the pleasant views of the town from the river. The body of the church, which has five aisles, is principally Perpendicular. The smaller church of St Nicholas is Perpendicular in appearance, though parts of the fabric are older. Of a Benedictine abbey there remain a beautiful Perpendicular gateway, and ruins of buildings called the prior's house, mainly Early English, and the guest house, with other fragments.
The picturesque narrow-arched bridge over the Thames near St Helen's church dates originally from 1416. There may be mentioned further the old buildings of the grammar school, founded in 1563, and of the charity called Christ's Hospital (1583); while the town-hall in the marketplace, dating from 1677, is attributed to Inigo Jones.
Abingdon (Abbedun, Abendun) was famous for its abbey, which was of great wealth and importance, and is believed to have been founded in 675 by Cissa, one of the subreguli of Centwin. Abundant charters from early Saxon monarchs are extant confirming laws and privileges to the abbey, and the earliest of these, from king Ceadwalla, was granted before 688. During the reign of Alfred, the abbey was destroyed by the Danes, but it was restored by Edred, and an imposing list of possessions in the Domesday Book evidences recovered prosperity. William the Conqueror in 1084 celebrated Easter at Abingdon, and left his son, afterwards Henry I, to be educated at the abbey.
After the dissolution in 1538 the town sank into decay, and in 1555, on a representation of its pitiable condition, Queen Mary I of England granted a charter establishing a mayor, two bailiffs, twelve chief burgesses, and sixteen secondary burgesses, the mayor to be clerk of the market, coroner and a Justice of the peace.
The council was empowered to elect one burgess to parliament, and this right continued until the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885. A town clerk and other officers were also appointed, and the town boundaries described in great detail. Later charters from Elizabeth, James I, James II, George II and George III. made no considerable change. James II changed the style of the corporation to that of a mayor, twelve aldermen and twelve burgesses.
The abbot seems to have held a market from very early times, and charters for the holding of markets and fairs mere granted by various sovereigns from Edward I to George II. In the 13th and 14th centuries Abingdon was a flourishing agricultural centre with an extensive trade in wool, and a famous weaving and clothing manufacture.
The present Christ's Hospital originally belonged to the Guild of the Holy Cross, on the dissolution of which Edward VI founded the hospital under its present name.
The building which was now houses the Abingdon Museum but was formerly the County Hall of Berkshire is probably the most distinguished landmark in Abingdon.
Schools in the town include Abingdon school (a private school) and John Mason School.