An astronomer or astrophysicist is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics. Historians often argue that ancient astronomers were priests and that this duality led to the rise of astrology.

See also: List of astronomers

There is also a well-known painting by Johannes Vermeer titled The Astronomer, which is often linked to Vermeer's The Geographer. These paintings are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their painting, 1668-69.