Biogeography is the science which aims at documenting and understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity.
It can be defined as the study of distribution and pattern of variation in numbers and kinds of living organisms.
Biogeography is a synthetic science, related to geography, biology, geology, climatology, and ecology. It is usually not an experimental science, as the spatial and temporal scales makes experiments difficult, but rather a science of observation.
Some fundamentals in biogeography are
- evolution (change in genetic composition of a population)
- extinction (disappearance of a species)
- dispersal (movement of populations away from their point of origin)