A creole is a language descended from a pidgin that has become the native language of a group of people. Study of Creole languages around the world (in particular by Derek Bickerton) has shown that they display remarkable similarities in grammar, lending support to the theory of a Universal Grammar. The majority of creole languages are based on English and other Indo-European languages (their superstrate language), with local or immigrant languages as substrate languages.
In some cases the group of people who speak such a language are called Creoles.
Below are described some of the better-known creoles.
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2 Kreyol Lwiziyen
3 Chinook Jargon
4 Haitian Creole
5 Hawai'ian Pidgin
8 Tok Pisin
was used as a trade language by Native Americans prior to, and shortly after, contact with Europeans. It contains elements of Cree and many neighboring Native American languages. After European contact, it also began incorporating elements of French and English. While not strictly speaking a creole (it had no native speakers), it had well-defined grammar, phonology, and vocabulary, and thus can be placed in the category of creoles.
was a jargon used in the early European colonization of the Hawai'ian Islands. English served as the superstrate language, with Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, and Hawai'ian elements incorporated. Although children started using it as a lingua franca and continued to do so long enough for Bickerton to observe the progress of creolization, it never became a true creole, because English became the primary language of Hawai'i after it become a U.S. state.
Also known as Roper River Creole, has become the major non-English language among Aboriginal Australians with over 10,000 first language speakers.
Spoken exclusively by the inhabitants of the Pitcairn Islands, an 18th century dialect of English is spoken with the Tahitian language to form the Creole language known as Pitcairnese.