Ecclesiastical court (also called "Courts Christian") is a generic name for certain courts having jurisdiction mainly in spiritual or religious matters. In the middle ages in many areas of Europe these courts had much wider powers than before the development of nation states as they were experts in interpreting canon law the basis of which was the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian which is considered the source of the civil law legal tradition.
The Ecclesiastical Courts are a system of courts in England, held by authority of the Crown and having jurisdiction over the matters dealing with ritual of the Church of England and the rights and obligations of church persons, now limited to controversies in areas of church property and ecclesiastical disciplinary proceedings. In England these courts, unlike common law courts are based upon and operate under civil law and canon law.
The names of these courts are:
- Archdeacon's Court
- Consistory Court
- Provincial courts
- Court of Arches of Canterbury
- Chancery Court of York
- Court of Faculties
- The Court of Final Appeal: Judicial Committee of the Privy Council