In ancient Greece, Hetaerae were courtesans, that is to say, sophisticated prostitutes and companions.
In ancient Greek society, prostitutes were independent and sometimes influential women who were required to wear distinctive dresses and had to pay taxes. There is evidence that, unlike most other women in Greek society at the time, Hetaerae were educated. Some similarities have been found between the ancient Greek Hetaera and the Japanese Geisha, complex figures that are perhaps in an intermediate position between prostitution and courtesans.
Hetaerae appear to have been regarded as distinct from Pornę or simple prostitutes, and also distinguished from mistresses or wives. In his speech Against Neaera, Demosthenes is quoted as saying:
- "We have hetaerae for pleasure, pallakae to care for our daily body’s needs and gynaekes to bear us legitimate children and to be faithful guardians of our households."