The number of indigenous people in Brazil has declined sharply from a pre-Columbian high of an estimted 5-6 million to just 100,000 in 1950. Over the past fifty years, efforts have been underway to protect the country's native peoples, and the population has risen again to some 300,000 (1997) in some 200 tribal groupings.

Indigenous people of Brazil include:

  • Apinaje
  • Asheninka
  • Aw
  • Banawa
  • Caingang
  • Caripuna
  • Fulni-o
  • Guajajara
  • Guarani
  • Karaja
  • Katuquina
  • Kaxinawa
  • Kraho
  • Macuxi
  • Pataxo
  • Potiguara
  • Tapuia
  • Terena
  • Ticuna
  • Xacriaba
  • Xavante
  • Xerente
  • Xucuru
  • Yanomami
  • Yawanawa