Industrialisation or industrial revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is tranformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state. The social and economic change is closely intertwined with technological innovation, and is also related to some form of philosophical change, or to a different attitude in the perception of nature.

Pre-industrial economies are those that rely on sustenance standards of living whereby the population focuses collective resources on producing only what can be consumed by the population.

In economics and urban planning, industrial is an intensive type of land use and economic activity involved with manufacturing and production. See also industrial archaeology