The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. The treaties were negotiated between Cardinal Pietro Gasparri for on behalf of the Vatican, and Benito Mussolini, the Fascist leader, as Prime Minister of Italy. There are three treaties:
- A treaty recognising the independence and sovereignty of the Holy See and creating the State of the Vatican City.
- A concordat defining the civil and religious relations between the government and the church within Italy (summarised in the motto: "free church in free State").
- A financial convention providing the Holy See with compensation for its losses in 1870.