Murad II was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1421 to 1451 (except a period in 1444 to 1446). Murad's reign was marked by the long war he fought against the Christians of the Balkans and the Turkish emirates in Anatolia. The open hostilities lasted for 25 years, from 1423 to 1448, first against Venice, the emirate of Karaman, Serbia and Hungaria. Karaman was defeated in 1428 and Venice withdrawed in 1432 following the defeat at the second Siege of Salonika in 1430. In the 1430s Murad captured huge terretories in the Balkans and could annex Serbia in 1439. In 1441 the Holy Roman Empire, Poland and Albania joined the Serbian-Hungarian coalition. Murad won the Battle of Varna in 1444 against Janos Hunyadi but lost the Battle of Jalowaz and was forced to abdicate. In 1446 he regained command at the interference of the Janissaries and could crush the Christian coalition at the second Battle of Kosovo (the first one took place in 1389). When the Balkan front was secured Murad turned east to defeat Timur Lenk's son, Shah Rokh, and the emirates of Karaman and Çorum-Amasya.
1421 to 1451