The term strategos (plural strategoi) is used in Greek to mean "general". In the Byzantine Empire the term was also used in the to describe a military governor (see Byzantine aristocracy and bureaucracy).

The Office of Strategos in Athenian Democracy

In the Athenian Democracy, strategoi were elected by name rather than chosen by lottery and expected to command at both land and sea. This office replaced the earlier polemarch as a commander of troops. The common translation general is a little misleading.

Following the reforms of Pericles, all Athenian positions except the strategos were selected by lottery and were paid so that any Athenian citizen could take part in office. The role of strategos remained a difficult to achieve position as both wealth and popularity were required to fill the office.

Some of the more notable Athenian strategoi were:

Pericles the great proponent of Democracy in Athens
Thucydides the author of "The Peloponnesian War"

See also Archons of Athens for a list of the known strategoi.