Trepanation has been carried out for non-medical reasons, including religious and mystical practices. Some trepanation advocates believe the procedure to have spiritual benefits, but it is generally not carried out by doctors without a medical indication.
There is evidence of trepanation in pre-historic human remains. See also: Trephinning in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
The operation is depicted in a painting by the artist Hieronymus Bosch entitled The Cure for Folly: Trepanning, alternatively entitled The Stone Operation.