The Hindu metrics of time
can be summarized as below.
Hindu Kaala Vyavahara (Metrics of Time)
- a pranamu is the normal interval of blinking in humans, or approximately 4 seconds
- a vighadiya is 6 pranamus, or approximately 24 seconds
- a ghadiya is 60 vighadiyas, or approximately 24 minutes
- a muhurta is equal to 2 ghadiyas, or approximately 48 minutes
- a nakshatra ahoratram or sidereal day is exactly equal to 30 muhurtas (Note: A day is considered to begin and end at sunrise, not midnight.)
Small units of time used in the vedas
- A leekshakamu is 1/60th of a pranamu, or 1/15th of a second;
- a lavamu is 1/60th of a leekshakamu, or 1/900th of a second;
- a renuvu is 1/60th of a lavamu, or 1/54,000th of a second;
- a truti is 1/60th of a renuvu, or the time it takes for a needle to penetrate a lotus leaf, or 1/3,240,000th of a second.
- a Tithi (also spelled thithi) or lunar day is defined as the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the moon and the sun to increase by 12°. Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours.
- a paksa or lunar fortnight consists of 15 Tithis
- a masa or lunar month (approximately 29.5 days) is divided into 2 paksas: the one between new moon and full moon is called gaura (bright); the one between full moon and new moon krishna (dark)
- 2 lunar months are 1 Ruthu
- 3 Ruthus are 1 Aayanam
- 2 Aayanas are 1 year
Years are grouped into yugas (ages):
- a jamu is 7½ Ghadiyas
- 8 jamus 1 half of the day(either day or night)
- an ahoratram is a tropical day (Note: A day is considered to begin and end at sunrise, not midnight.)
The Four Yugas
|1,728,000 solar years||Satya Yuga|
|1,296,000 solar years ||Treta Yuga|
|864,000 solar years||Dwapar Yuga|
|432,000 solar years||Kali Yuga|
- One cycle of the above four yugas is one \mahayuga (4.32 million solar years)
- A manvantara consists of 71 mahayugas (306,720,000 solar years)
- After each manvantara follows one Sandhi Kala of the same duration as a Krita Yuga (1,728,000 solar years). (It is said that during a Sandhi Kala, the entire earth is submerged in water.)
- A kalpa consists of a period of 1,728,000 solar years called Adi Sandhi, followed by 14 manvantaras and Sandhi Kalas for a total of 1000 mahayugas or 4,320,000,000 (4.32 billion) solar years.
- Two kalpas constitue a day and night of Brahma; the life cycle of Brahma is one hundred years of Brahma, or 311 trillion years.
The current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began at midnight 17/18 February 3102 B.C. in the proleptic Julian calendar
It has been suggested that we are entering a short period of relative light within this otherwise dark time for humanity and the higher beings. PLEASE CORRECT THIS IF NECESSARY.