Vulvovaginal health refers to the health and sanitation of the human female vulva and vagina. Problems affecting this area include:
- Infection with Candida albicans (candidiasis or "yeast infection")
- Bacterial vaginosis (BV) associated with the Gardnerella, formerly called "nonspecific vaginitis"
- Cervical cancer (detected by the Pap smear)
- Bladder infection, urinary tract infection (UTI), cystitis, Urethritis
- Cancer of the vulva
The generic term for infection of the vagina is vaginitis. Symptoms may include an unusual or unpleasant discharge, itching, or pain during intercourse. But vaginal infections may also be present without any noticeable symptoms.
The following measures are advisable for keeping the vulva and vagina healthy:
- Washing once a day or so with water but without soap, since soap disturbs the natural PH balance of the vagina. Other measures are seldom necessary or advisable. Two notable examples: So-called "feminine hygiene sprays" are unnecessary, may be generally harmful, and have been known to cause severe allergic reactions. Vaginal douching is generally not necessary and has been implicated in helping to cause bacterial vaginosis (BV) and candidiasis ("yeast infections").
- After using the toilet, wipe from the front toward the back to avoid introducing bacteria from the anal area into the vulva.
- Drink plenty of water and urinate frequently and as soon as possible when you feel the need, to help flush bacteria out of the urinary tract and avoid urinary tract infections. For the same reason, try to urinate before and after sex.
- Change out of a wet swimsuit or other wet clothes as soon as possible.
- Avoid fragrances, colors, and "deodorants" in products that contact the vulva/vagina: sanitary pads, tampons, toilet paper. Some women who are sensitive to these substances should also avoid bubble baths and some fabric detergents and softeners.
- Avoid wearing leather trousers, tight jeans, panties made of nylon or other synthetic fabrics, or pantyhose without an all-cotton crotch (not cotton covered by nylon - cut out the nylon panel if necessary).
- Wear skirts without panties or pantyhose whenever possible, for example at home or when driving. Sleep without panties: eight hours a day is better than nothing.
- Anything which has been in contact with the anal area (see anal sex) should be thoroughly washed with soap and water or a similar disinfectant before coming in contact with the vulva or vagina.
- Use condoms, practice safer sex, know your sex partners, ask sex partners to practice basic hygiene (soap and water) of the genitals.