Wireless community networks are the largely hobbyist-led development of interlinked computer networks using wireless LAN technologies, taking advantage of the recent development of cheap, standardised 802.11b (Wi-Fi) devices to build growing clusters of linked, citywide networks. Some are being used to link to the wider Internet, particularly where individuals can obtain unmetered ADSL and/or cable modem internet connections at fixed costs and share them with friends. Where such access is unavailable or expensive, they can act as a low-cost partial alternative, as the only cost is the fixed cost of the equipment.
Such projects started to evolve in 2000 with the availability of 802.11 equipment, and are gradually spreading to cities and towns around the world. As of mid-2002, most such networks remain embryonic, with small groups of people experimenting and gradually interconnecting with each other and thus expanding the domain and utility of the networks.
These projects are in many senses an evolution of amateur radio and, more specifically packet radio, as well as an outgrowth of the free software community (which in itself substantially overlaps with amateur radio), and share their freewheeling, experimental, adaptable culture. The key to using standard wireless networking devices designed for short-range use for multi-kilometre linkups is the use of high-gain antennas. Commercially-available examples are relatively expensive and not that readily available, so much experimentation has gone into homebuilt antenna construction. One striking design is the cantenna, which performs better than many commercial antenna designs and is constructed from a steel food can.
Most wireless community network projects are coordinated by citywide user groups who freely share information and help using the Internet. They often spring up as a grassroots movement offering free, anonymous Internet access to anyone with WaveLAN capability.
Some wireless community network projects are:
- Community Wireless Network, Urbana-Champaign - http://wireless.ucimc.org/
- Wireless Warrior - http://www.wireless-warrior.org/
- BAWUG, San Francisco - http://www.bawug.org/
- Consume the Net, London - http://consume.net/
- Elektrosmog, Stockholm - http://elektrosmog.nu/
- EuropeOpen - http://www.europeopen.net/
- GuerillaNet - http://22.214.171.124/
- PDX Wireless, Portland, Oregon - http://www.pdxwireless.org/
- Personal Telco, Portland, Oregon - http://www.personaltelco.net/ (wiki)
- Seattle Wireless - http://www.seattlewireless.net/ (wiki)
- SFLAN, San Francisco - http://www.sflan.org/
- Sydney Wireless, Sydney Australia - http://www.sydneywireless.com/
- WLAN ORG UK,Bath United Kingdom original - http://www.wlan.org.uk/
- mobileaccess, HotSpots and wireless communities in Germany - http://mobileaccess.de/wlan/
- NZWireless, New Zealand - http://www.nzwireless.org/
- Bristol Wireless,Bristol, UK - http://www.bristolwireless.net/
- Toronto Wireless Community Network - http://www.esoterraka.com/twcn/
- Wireless Leiden Foundation - http://www.wirelessleiden.nl/english/ and http://wiki.wirelessleiden.nl/ (wiki) - cooperates with Demon Internet, which provides free internet access for Wireless Leiden, in order to gain experience in this area. It is for use in homes and other buildings with an external antenna, and for use with a laptop outside, in the parts of Leiden that are covered.