This article is part of theHistory of Mongolia series.
|Mongols before Chinggis Khan|
|Jüün Ghar Empire|
This article is part of theHistory of China series.
In 1231, Korea fell into Mongol hands, which later used as a base for invading Japan. By the mid-13th century, the Mongols had subjugated north China and the Muslim kingdoms of Central Asia and had twice penetrated Europe. With the resources of his vast empire, Kublai Khan (1215-94), a grandson of Genghis Khan (1167?-1227) and the supreme leader of all Mongol tribes, began his drive against the Southern Song. Even before the extinction of the Song dynasty, Kublai Khan had established the first alien dynasty to rule all China--the Yuan. In 1279, Guangzhou fell into Mongol hands, which marks the end of the Southern Song and the onset of China under the Mongols.
Although the Mongols sought to govern China through traditional institutions, using Han Chinese bureaucrats, they were not up to the task. The Han were discriminated against socially and politically. All important central and regional posts were monopolized by Mongols, who also preferred employing non-Chinese from other parts of the Mongol domain--Central Asia, the Middle East, and even Europe--in those positions for which no Mongol could be found. Chinese were more often employed in non-Chinese regions of the empire.
As in other periods of alien dynastic rule of China, a rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan dynasty. The major cultural achievements were the development of drama and the novel and the increased use of the written vernacular. Given the unified rule of central Asia, trades between East and West flourished. The Mongols' extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange. Western musical instruments were introduced to enrich the Chinese performing arts. From this period dates the conversion to Islam, by Muslims of Central Asia, of growing numbers of Chinese in the northwest and southwest. Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism also enjoyed a period of toleration. Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism) flourished, although native Taoism endured Mongol persecutions. Confucian governmental practices and examinations based on the Classics, which had fallen into disuse in north China during the period of disunity, were reinstated by the Mongols in the hope of maintaining order over Han society. Advances were realized in the fields of travel literature, cartography, and geography, and scientific education. Certain key Chinese innovations, such as printing techniques, porcelain production, playing cards, and medical literature, were introduced in Europe, while the production of thin glass and cloisonne became popular in China. The first records of travel by Westerners date from this time. The most famous traveler of the period was the Venetian Marco Polo, whose account of his trip to "Cambaluc," the Great Khan's capital (now Beijing), and of life there astounded the people of Europe. The Mongols undertook extensive public works. Road and water communications were reorganized and improved. To provide against possible famines, granaries were ordered built throughout the empire. The city of Beijing was rebuilt with new palace grounds that included artificial lakes, hills and mountains, and parks. During the Yuan period, Beijing became the terminus of the Grand Canal, which was completely renovated. These commercially oriented improvements encouraged overland as well as maritime commerce throughout Asia and facilitated the first direct Chinese contacts with Europe. Chinese and Mongol travelers to the West were able to provide assistance in such areas as hydraulic engineering, while bringing back to the Middle Kingdom new scientific discoveries and architectural innovations. Contacts with the West also brought the introduction to China of a major new food crop--sorghum--along with other foreign food products and methods of preparation.
After internal revolts, the Yuan Dynasty was pushed out of China south of the Great Wall in 1368, and there it was taken over by the Ming Dynasty. The Yuan Dynasty, however, remained in Mongolia, called the Northern Yuan by modern historians. Accoording to Chinese political orthodoxy, there could be only one legitimate empire, and so both dynasties denied the legitimacy of the other, although modern Chinese historians tend to regard the Ming dynasty as more legitimate. Chinese called the Mongols "Tatar" (韃靼 da2 da2) instead of "Mongol" (蒙古 meng2 gu3) even though they called themselves "Mongghul". In 1388 the throne was took over by Yesüder, a descendant of Arigh Bugha. Getting through the turbulent period, descendants of Khubilai were restored to the throne. When Lingdan Khan, the last grand-Khan of the Mongols, died on his way to Tibet in 1634, his son Ejei surrendered to the Manchu and gave the great seal of the Yuan Emperor to Hong Taiji. As a result, Hong Taiji established the new dynasty of Qing as the successor of the Yuan Dynasty in 1636.
|Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4)||Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 )||Khan Names||Born Names, first names in bold||Period of Reigns||Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years|
|Convention: use first name (e.g. Temujin) or Khan names for khans before Kublai Khan. Use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after. A mix of the three for Kublai Khan.|
1) all first names of the sovereigns were those more familiar to western readers.
2) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to retore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.
|Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Genghis Khan||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Temujin (孛兒只斤鐵木真 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tie3 mu4 zhen1)||1206-1227||did not exist|
|Rui Zong (睿宗 rui4 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||?||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Tolui (孛兒只斤拖雷 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tuo1 lei2)||1228||did not exist|
|Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Ogedei Khan||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Ogedei (孛兒只斤窩闊台 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 wo1 kuo4 tai2)||1229-1241||did not exist|
|did not exist||did not exist||?||Töregene Khâtûn (乃馬真 nai3 ma3 zhen1)||regent 1241-1246||did not exist|
|Ding Zong (定宗 ding4 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Güyük Khan||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Güyük (孛兒只斤貴由 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 gui4 yuo2)||1246-1248||did not exist|
|did not exist||did not exist||?||Oghul Ghaymish (海米失 hai3 mi3 shi1)||regent 1248-1251||did not exist|
|Xian Zong (憲宗 xian4 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Möngke Khan||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Möngke (孛兒只斤蒙哥 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 meng2 ge1)||1251-1259||did not exist|
|Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Kublai Khan||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Kublai (孛兒只斤忽必烈 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 hu1 bi4 lie4)||1260-1294||Zhongtong (中統 zhong1 tong3) 1260-1264
|Cheng Zong (成宗 cheng2 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Temür Öljeytü Khân||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Temür (孛兒只斤鐵木耳 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tie3 mu4 er2)||1295-1307||Yuanzhen (元貞 yuan2 zhen1) 1295-1297
|Wu Zong (武宗 cheng2 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Qayshan Gülük||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Qayshan (孛兒只斤海山 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 hai3 shan1)||1308-1311||Zhida (至大 zhi4 da4) 1308-1311
|Ren Zong (仁宗 ren2 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Ayurparibhadra||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Ayurparibhadra (孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 ai4 yu4 li2 ba2 li4 ba1 da2)||1312-1320||Huangqing (皇慶 huang2 qing4) 1312-1313
|Ying Zong (英宗 ying1 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Suddhipala Gege'en||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Suddhipala (孛兒只斤碩德八剌 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 shuo4 de2 ba1 la2)||1321-1323||Zhizhi (至治 zhi4 zhi4) 1321-1323
|Convention: 'for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 yuan2 tai4 ding4 di4.|
|Jin Zong (晉宗 jin4 zong1)||Tai Ding Di (泰定帝 tai4 ding4 di4)||Yesün-Temür||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Yesün-Temür (孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 ye3 sun1 tie3 mu4 er2)||1321-1328||Taiding (泰定 tai4 ding4) 1321-1328
Zhihe (致和 zhi4 he2) 1328
|did not exist||Tian Shun Di (天順帝 tian1 shun4 di4)||Arigaba||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Arigaba (孛兒只斤阿速吉八 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 a1 su4 ji2 ba1)||1328||Tianshun (天順 tian1 shun4) 1328
|Wen Zong (文宗 wen2 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Jijaghatu Toq-Temür||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Toq-Temür (孛兒只斤圖鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tu2 tie3 mu4 er2)||1328-1329 and 1329-1332||Tianli (天曆 tian1 li4) 1328-1330
|Ming Zong (明宗 ming2 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Qoshila Qutuqtu||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Qoshila (孛兒只斤和世剌 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 he2 shi4 la4)||1329||did not exist|
|Ning Zong (寧宗 ning2 zong1)||too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign||Irinchibal||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Irinchibal (孛兒只斤懿璘質班 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 yi4 lin2 zhi2 ban1)||1332||Zhishun (至順 zhi4 shun4) 1332
|Convention: 'for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.|
|Hui Zong (惠宗 hui4 zong1)||Shun Di (順帝 shun4 di4)||Toghan-Temür||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Toghan-Temür (孛兒只斤妥懽鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tuo3 huan1 tie3 mu4 er2)||1333-1370||Zhishun (至順 zhi4 shun4) 1333
|Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4)||Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號)||Khan Names||Born Names||Period of Reigns||Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years|
|Convention: use khan names or born names.|
|Note: 1) all first names of the sovereigns were those more familiar to western readers. 2) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to retore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.|
|Convention: 'for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.|
|Hui Zong (惠宗 hui4 zong1) (same person as the last Yuan emperor in China)||Shun Di (順帝 shun4 di4)||Toghan-Temür||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Toghan-Temür (孛兒只斤妥懽鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tuo3 huan1 tie3 mu4 er2)||1333-1370||Zhishun (至順 zhi4 shun4) 1333
|Zhao Zong (昭宗 zhao1 zong1)||did not exist||Biliketu Khan?||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Ayushilidrala ? (孛兒只斤愛育識里達臘 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 ai4 yu4 shi4 li3 da2 la4)||1370-1378||Xuanguang (宣光 xuan1 guang1) 1371-1378
|did not exist||did not exist||Usahar Khan?||Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Togus-Temür (孛兒只斤脫古思鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tuo1 gu3 si1 tie3 mu4 er2)||1378-1387||Tianguang (天光 tian1 guang1) 1378-1387
|Note: ....5 more khans before the Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin family stepped down from the khan throne....|
The imperial family belongs to the Borjigin clan of the Kiyan superclan.
Name transliteration form Mongolian:
- Temür Öljeytü Khân (cheng)
- Qayshan Gülük Hai-Shan (wu)
- Ayurparibhadra Ayurbarwada (ren)
- Suddhipala Gege'en Shidebala (ying)
- Yesün-Temür (tai ding di)
- Arigaba Aragibag (tian shun di)
- Jijaghatu Toq-Temür (wen)
- Qoshila Qutuqtu (ming2)
- Rinchenpal Irinchibal (ning2)
- Toghan-Temür (shun di)
- ? (zhao)
- Togus-Temür (last with era name)