Centuries: 15th century - 16th century - 17th century
- April 9 - Spanish troops capture Calais
- September 17 - The Spanish capture Amiens
- September 20 - Diego de Montemayor founded the city of Monterrey, Mexico.
- January 13 - Jan van Goyen, painter (+ 1656).
- March 31 - René Descartes, French philosopher.
- June 23 - Johan Banér, Swedish soldier in the Thirty Years War.
- July 31 - Philip III of Burgundy, duke of Burgundy.
- August 16 - Frederick V, elector palatine of the Rhine Palatinate and briefly titled King of Bohemia.
- August 19 - Princess Elizabeth Stuart of Scotland, later Queen consort Elizabeth of Bohemia.
- September - James Shirley, English dramatist.
- Emperor Go-Mizunoo of Japan .
- Thomas Francis, prince of Carignano.
- Constantijn Huygens, Dutch poet.
- Praise-God Barebone, English leather-seller and Fifth Monarchy man.
- Moses Amyraut, French Protestant theologian and metaphysician.
- Michael I of Russia.
- Pietro da Cortona, Italian painter.