Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- Henry Morgan captures Panama
- April - Pope Clement X is elected.
- May 2 - The Hudson's Bay Company is formed in England.
- May 26 - In Dover, Charles II of England and Louis XIV of France secretly sign a treaty ending hostilities between their kingdoms.
- Phosphorus is discovered by Hennig Brandt.
- Blaise Pascal's Pensées is posthumously published.
- England gains formal possession of Jamaica
- Les Invalides constructed by Louis XIV of France
- January 24 - William Congreve, English playwright.
- May 12 - King Frederick Augustus I of Poland (+ 1733).
- August 21 - James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, illegitimate son of the Duke of York (the later James II of England) and later French military commander.
- December 7 - John Aislabie, Director of the South Sea Company.