Centuries: 17th century - 18th century - 19th century
- Adam Smith is appointed professor of logic at the University of Glasgow
- March 31 - The future King George III of the United Kingdom succeeds his father as Prince of Wales. His mother Augusta of Saxe-Gotha becomes Dowager Princess of Wales.
- February 20 - Johann Heinrich Voß, poet (+ 1826)
- March 16 - James Madison, later 4th President of the United States.
- China - Qianlong Emperor of China, Qing Dynasty (reigned from October 18, 1735 to February 9, 1796)
- France - Louis XV King of France (reigned from 1715 to 1774)
- Great Britain - George II King of Great Britain (reigned from June 11, 1727 to October 25, 1760)
- Prussia - Frederick II King of Prussia (reigned from 1740 to 1786)
- Russia - Elizabeth Empress of Russia (reigned from 1741 to January 5, 1762)
- Saxony - Frederick Augustus II Elector of Saxony (from 1733 to 1763) (also King of Poland)
- Sweden - Adolf Frederick of Sweden King of Sweden (reigned from 1751 to 1771)\n