Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC
- Second Punic War:
- August 2 - Hannibal crushes the Romans in the Battle of Cannae. As a result, a number of Italian cities allied to Rome desert to the Carthaginian side.
- The historian Quintus Fabius Pictor is sent to Delphi to consult the oracle there for advice about what to do after Cannae.
- The Roman general Marcus Claudius Marcellus holds off an attack by Hannibal in the First Battle of Nola.
- The consul Marcus Terentius Varro appoints Marcus Fabius Buteo as dictator alongside Fabius Maximus, an unprecedented move, but Buteo resigned after choosing new members for the Senate (which had been depleted by battle casualties).
- The First Macedonian War begins, will last until 205.