Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC
Decades: 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC - 330s BC - 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC
343 BC 342 BC 341 BC 340 BC 339 BC - 338 BC - 337 BC 336 BC 335 BC 334 BC 333 BC
- August 2 - Battle of Cheronea: Philip of Macedon defeats Athens and Thebes in the definitive battle for Greek Independence
- King Arses of Persia ascends to the Persian throne.
- Agis III succeeds his father Archidamus III as king of Sparta
- Battle of Trifanum: The Roman general T. Manlius Torquatus decisively defeats the Latins.
- Artaxerxes III, king of Persia (murdered)
- Archidamus III, king of Sparta (died in battle)
- Isocrates, Athenian orator
- Shang Yang, Chinese statesman of Qin (executed - torn apart by chariot)