Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC
- End of the Peace of Nicias
- Begin of the Athenian military expedition to Sicily
- Athenian politician Alcibiades is condemned to death and flees to Sparta
- Melos, refusing the Athenian demand to join the Delian League, is attacked and conquered.The surviving male inhabitants were slain and the women and children enslaved -- an atrocity that shocked the sensibilities of her contemporaries.