Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC
- King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece.
- August 11 Battle of Thermopylae.
- Pleistarchus succeeds his father Leonidas as king of Sparta.
- August Battle of Artemisium Persian fleet fights an inconclusive battle with the Greek allied fleet.
- September 23 Battle of Salamis.
- Persian invasion of Corfu.
- Battle of Himera The Carthaginians under Hamilcar are defeated by the Greeks of Sicily, led by Gelon of Syracuse.
- Euripides, Greek playwright.
- Antiphon, Attic orator.
- Philolaus, Greek mathematician and philosopher (+ circa 405 BC) (estimated date).