The Battle of Cunaxa was fought in 401 BC between Cyrus the Younger and his elder brother Arsaces, who had seized the Persian throne as Artaxerxes II in 404 BC. Cyrus gathered an army of Greek mercenaries (including the historian, Xenophon) and met Artaxerxes at Cunaxa, 70 kilometres North of Babylon. Cyrus was defeated by Artaxerxes' superior cavalry forces and died in the battle.

see also History of Persia