Originally the word computing was synonymous with counting and calculating, and a computer was a person who computes. Since the advent of the electronic computer, it has come to also mean the operation and usage of these machines, as well as the electrical processes carried out within the computer hardware itself.

Table of contents
1 Science and Theory
2 Hardware
3 Software
4 History of computing
5 Business computing
6 Human factors
7 Computer security
8 Data
9 Mechatronics
10 Classes of computers
11 Companies - current
12 Companies - historic
13 Professional organizations
14 Standards organizations and consortia

Science and Theory



History of computing

Business computing

Human factors

Computer security


Numeric Data

Character Data

Other Data Topics


Classes of computers

Companies - current

Companies - historic

Professional organizations

Standards organizations and consortia

(see also