Brazil is a country located in Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

Map references: South America

total: 8,514,215 km²
land: 8,456,510 km²
water: 55,455 km²
note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo.

Special Note: The Amazon Rainforest is part of Brazil.

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries:
total: 15,735 km
border countries: Argentina 1,263 km, Bolivia 3,126 km, Colombia 1,644 km, French Guiana 655 km, Guyana 1,298 km, Paraguay 1,339 km, Peru 2,995 km, Suriname 593 km, Uruguay 1,003 km, Venezuela 1,819 km

Coastline: 7,367 km

Maritime claims:
contiguous zone: 24 nautical miles
continental shelf: 200 nautical miles
exclusive economic zone: 200 nautical miles
territorial sea: 12 nautical miles

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Vegetation: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest

Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

Land use:
arable land: 5%
permanent crops: 1%
permanent pastures: 22%
forests and woodland: 58%
other: 14% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land: 28,000 km² (1993 est.)

Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

Environment - current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
note: President Cardoso in September 1999 signed into force an environmental crime bill which for the first time defines pollution and deforestation as crimes punishable by stiff fines and jail sentences

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

Geography - note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

Cities in Brazil include

See Also See also : Brazil