Georgia (in 1990-1995 Republic of Georgia) is a country to the north-east of the Black Sea in the south Caucasus. A former republic of the Soviet Union, it shares borders with Russia in the north and Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan in the south.


(In Detail) (Full size)

National motto:  
Official language Georgian language
Capital and
largest city
Capital's coordinates 41° 43' N, 44° 48' E
PresidentNino Burjanadze
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 118th
69,700 kmē
- Total (2003E)
- Density
Ranked 111th
From Soviet Union
9 April 1991
Currency Lari (GEL)
Time zone UTC +4 (DST +5)
National anthem Dideba zetsit kurtheuls
Internet TLD .ge
Calling Code995

Table of contents
1 History
2 Politics
3 Subdivisions
4 Former Flag
5 Geography
6 Economy
7 Demographics
8 Culture
9 Miscellaneous topics
10 External links and references


Main article: History of Georgia

Georgia was taken over by the Russian Tsarist Empire on September 12, 1801. After the Russian Revolution it declared independence on May 26, 1918 during the Russian Civil War. In February 25, 1921 the Democratic Republic of Georgia was occupied by Soviet Russia and was incorporated into a Transcaucasian Federative Soviet Socialist Republic uniting Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. The TFSSR was disaggregated into its component elements in 1936 and Georgia became the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.

The elections of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia of October 28, 1990 were the first democratic, multiparty parliamentary elections in the Caucasus. Shortly before the collapse of the Soviet Union on April 9, 1991, Georgia declared independence again. Several areas, including Abkhazia, Ajaria and South Ossetia, quickly became embroiled in separatist disputes that led to civil wars and widespread inter-ethnic violence. The Georgian government still does not control large parts of its territory and an uneasy ceasefire prevails in Abkhazia.


Main article: Politics of Georgia See also Foreign relations of Georgia

Following a crisis involving allegations of ballot fraud, Eduard Shevardnadze resigned as President on November 23, 2003. The interim president is the speaker of the outgoing parliament (whose replacement was annulled), Nino Burjanadze. On January 4, 2004 Mikhail Saakashvili, leader of the United National Movement (UNM) won the country's presidential election and is due to be inaugurated on January 25. Fresh parliamentary elections are expected in March.


Main article: Subdivisions of Georgia

Georgia is divided into 53 provinces, 12 cities and two autonomous republics.

Autonomous republics: Abkhazia, Ajaria.
Cities: Chiatura, Batumi, Gori, Kutaisi, Poti, Rustavi, Sokhumi, Tbilisi, Tkibuli, Tskaltubo, Tskhinvali, Zugdidi
Provinces: Districts of Abasha, Adigeni, Akhalgora, Akhaltsikhe, Akhmeta, Ambrolauri, Aspindza, Baghdati, Bolnisi, Borjomi, Chkhorotsku, Chokhatauri, Dedoplistskaro, Dmanisi, Dusheti, Gardabani, Gurjaani, Java, Kareli, Kaspi, Kharagauli, Khashuri, Khobi, Khoni, Lagodekhi, Lanchkhuti, Lentekhi, Marneuli, Martvili, Mestia, Mtskheta, Ninotsminda, Oni, Ozurgeti, Kazbegi, Kvareli, Sachkhere, Sagarejo, Samtredia, Senaki, Sighnagi,Telavi, Terjola, Tetritskaro, Tianeti, Tsageri, Tsalenjikha, Tsalka, Vani, Zestaponi, Zugdidi

Former Flag


Main article: Geography of Georgia

In the north, Georgia has a 723km common border with Russia, specifically with the Northern Caucasus federal district. The following Russian republics/subdivisions - from west to east - border Georgia: Krasnodar Region, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia-Alania, Ingushetia, Chechnya, Dagestan.

Main cities:


Main article: Economy of Georgia


Main article: Demographics of Georgia


Main article:
Culture of Georgia See also Georgian language

DateEnglish NameLocal NameRemarks

Miscellaneous topics

External links and references

Countries of the world  |  Asia  |  Europe  |  Council of Europe