Germania Inferior (in English lower Germany) was a Roman province, located along the west margin of the Rhine, on today's Netherlands and northern Germany. The principal settlements of the province were today's Bonn (Bona), Xanten and Cologne.

The army of Germania Inferior, known from inscriptions simply as EXGERINF (Exercitus Germania Inferior), had several legions at his service. Legio I Minervia and Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix were, however, the most permanent ones.

The first confrontations between a Roman army and the peoples of Germania Inferior was during Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars. Caesar invaded the region in 57 BC and in the next three years annihilated several Germanic tribes, including the Eburones and the Menapians.

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