- The word "isomorphism" applies when two complex structures can be mapped onto each other, in such a way that to each part of one structure there is a corresponding part in the other structure, where "corresponding" means that the two parts play similar roles in their respective structures. (Gödel, Escher, Bach, p. 49)
If there exists an isomorphism between two structures, we call the two structures isomorphic. Isomorphic structures are "the same" at a certain level of abstraction; ignoring the specific identities of the elements in the underlying sets and the names of the underlying relations, the two structures are identical.
For example, if one object consists of a set X with an ordering <= and the other object consists of a set Y with an ordering [=, then an isomorphism from X to Y is a bijective function f : X -> Y such that
- f(u) [= f(v) iff u <= v.
Or, if on these sets the binary operations * and @ are defined, respectively, then an isomorphism from X to Y is a bijective function f : X -> Y such that
- f(u) @ f(v) = f(u * v)