Princeton, New Jersey is the name of a township and a borough in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. The township completely surrounds the borough; they are referred together as "the two Princetons". Before the formation of Mercer County in 1836, the two Princetons were part of Somerset County, New Jersey. The borough is located at latitude 40°21' North, longitude 74°40' West. As of the 2000 census, the borough had a total population of 14,203.
Princeton is home to Princeton University (originally the College of New Jersey). The university campus lies mostly within Princeton Borough, but parts of it extend into Princeton Township. The university was chartered in 1746, and is one of two universities in New Jersey to be chartered before the American Revolution (Rutgers University is the other). Princeton is also home to Morven, the former home of Richard Stockton, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence who was forced to flee his home during the Revolution. Morven is the current home of the New Jersey Historical Society and former Governor's mansion of the state; the current Governor's mansion is Drumthwacket, a mansion outside the center of town.
During the War for Independence, British and American armies crossed New Jersey several times. On January 3, 1777, the American forces led by George Washington scored an important victory over British forces led by Charles Cornwallis in the Battle of Princeton. In the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall at Princeton University, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. It was there that the Continental Congress learned of the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1783) which ended the war. After the war, in the 1790s, when the United States was first founded and Washington, D.C was being built, Princeton University's Nassau Hall served as a temporary capital for the fledgling republic.
In 1912, a former professor at Princeton and Governor of New Jersey named Woodrow Wilson was elected President of the United States. He served two terms as President, wrote the Fourteen Points, and was President during World War I.
Princeton has been the setting of several motion pictures, most notably the Academy Award-winning A Beautiful Mind about the schizophrenic mathematician John Nash. The 1994 film "I.Q.," featuring Meg Ryan, Tim Robbins, and Walter Matthau as Albert Einstein, was also set in Princeton.
As of the census of 2000, there are 14,203 people, 3,326 households, and 1,692 families residing in the borough. The population density is 2,964.2/km² (7,686.3/mi²). There are 3,495 housing units at an average density of 729.4/km² (1,891.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the borough is 80.26% White, 6.39% African American, 0.28% Native American, 7.46% Asian, 0.14% Pacific Islander, 2.50% from other races, and 2.96% from two or more races. 7.10% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There are 3,326 households out of which 22.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% are married couples living together, 6.4% have a female householder with no husband present, and 49.1% are non-families. 40.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 12.0% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.20 and the average family size is 2.92.
In the borough the population is spread out with 10.1% under the age of 18, 40.9% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 12.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.3% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 25 years. For every 100 females there are 108.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 107.8 males.
The median income for a household in the borough is $67,346, and the median income for a family is $102,957. Males have a median income of $60,341 versus $52,900 for females. The per capita income for the borough is $27,292. 9.0% of the population and 2.9% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total people living in poverty, 5.4% are under the age of 18 and 6.8% are 65 or older.