Privatdozent (PD for short) is a title in the European university system, especially in German-speaking countries. The title PD is given to academics who work at a university in a teaching position, who have earned the degrees of "Dr." (PhD, promotion) and of "Dr. habil." (habilitation) -- who are therefore given the venia legendi (or venia docendi), but who are not professors (which title, in Germany at least, implies a life-time position with special rights). A Privatdozent who gets appointed to a university is given the title "university professor" ("Prof.").