Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century
Events and Trends
- Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus defeats Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra VII of Egypt at the Battle of Actium (September 2, 31 BC). On August, 30 BC the victor captures Alexandria. Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra suicide and her son and co-ruler Ptolemy XV Caesarion is executed. Egypt is annexed to the Roman Republic and Octavianus becomes the undisputed ruler of Rome and her subjects. This would soon lead to the creation of the Roman Empire.