The Lillehammer affair refers to the murder by Mossad agents of a Moroccan waiter, Ahmed Boushiki, in Lillehammer, Norway on January 7, 1974. The agents had been sent by Israel to assassinate Ali Hassan Salameh, the leader of the Black September Organization, a Palestinian group which carried out the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre; they mistook Boushiki for their target and shot him as he walked back from a cinema to his flat with his pregnant wife. Two members of the assassination team were arrested the next day as they re-used a getaway car to go to the airport. After their interrogation the whole cell was arrested, and incriminating documents and the keys to a network of safe houses were discovered.
In total five Mossad agents were captured by the Norwegian authorities and convicted of the killing and imprisoned, but were soon thereafter released and returned to Israel. The Israeli government attempted at the time to deny their responsibility for the murder. In 1996 Israel agreed to provide the family of Ahmed Boushiki with compensation.