Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century
- January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter.
- July 5 - John Guy sets sail from Bristol with 39 other colonists for Newfoundland.
- Johannes Fabricius is the first to observe sunspots telescopically.
- Poland captures Moscow, just to lose it again to Russian and Swedish troops.